Anatomically-based skeletal coordinate systems for use with impact biomechanics data intended for anthropomorphic test device development.

Affiliation

University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, United States. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) are frequently used to characterize biomechanical response and injury tolerance of humans to various types of loading by means of instrumentation installed directly on the skeleton. Data extracted from such tests are often used to develop and validate anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs), which function as human surrogates in tests for injury assessment. Given that the location and orientation of installed instrumentation differs between subjects, nominally similar measurements made on different PMHS must be transformed to standardized, skeletal-based local coordinate systems (LCS) before appropriate data comparisons can be made. Standardized PMHS LCS that correspond to ATD instrumentation locations and orientations have not previously been published. This paper introduces anatomically-defined PMHS LCS for body regions in which kinematic measurements are made using ATDs. These LCS include the head, sternum, single vertebrae, pelvis, femurs (distal and proximal), and tibiae (distal and proximal) based upon skeletal landmarks extracted from whole body CT scans. The proposed LCS provide a means to standardize the reporting of PMHS data, and facilitate both the comparison of PMHS impact data across institutions and the application of PMHS data to the development and validation of ATDs.

Keywords

Impact testing,Instrumentation,Local coordinate systems,Post-mortem human subjects,

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