Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: Clinical and Prognostic Role.


Department of "Scompenso Cardiaco e Cardiologia Clinica", Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milano, Italy; Cardiovascular Section, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milano, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Via Parea 4, 20138 Milan, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Anemia and iron deficiency (ID) represent 2 prevalent, often interrelated, comorbidities in heart failure (HF). Both of them are significantly related to functional capacity and are undoubted predictors of poor prognosis in patients with HF. Although anemia and ID both have "global" detrimental effects, these 2 conditions are too often overlooked in cardiology daily clinical practice. The present review sought to summarize briefly the prevalence and the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of anemia and ID as regards HF severity (ie, exercise capacity) and prognosis.


Anemia,Cardiopulmonary exercise test,Heart failure,Hemoglobin,Iron deficiency,