Antimicrobial resistance profiles of 5 common bovine mastitis pathogens in large Chinese dairy herds.


Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P.R. China. Electronic address: [Email]


The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing in human and animal pathogens, becoming a concern worldwide. However, prevalence and characteristics of AMR of bovine mastitis pathogens in large Chinese dairy herds are still unclear. Therefore, our objective was to determine the AMR profile of bacteria isolated from clinical mastitis in large (>500 cows) Chinese dairy herds. A total of 541 isolates of the 5 most common species, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 103), non-aureus staphylococci (NAS; n = 107), Streptococcus species (n = 101), Klebsiella species (n = 130), and Escherichia coli (n = 100), isolated from bovine clinical mastitis on 45 dairy farms located in 10 provinces of China were included. Presence of AMR was determined by minimum inhibitory concentrations using the microdilution method. Prevalence of multidrug resistance (resistance to >2 antimicrobials) was 27% (148/541). A very wide distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations was screened in all isolates, including Staph. aureus isolates, which were resistant to penicillin (66%). In addition, NAS (30%) were more resistant than Staph. aureus to oxacillin (84%), penicillin (62%), tetracycline (34%), and clindamycin (33%). Prevalence of resistance to tetracycline was high (59%) in Streptococcus spp. Additionally, prevalence of resistance of both E. coli and Klebsiella spp. was high to amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (81 and 38%, respectively), followed by tetracycline (only Klebsiella spp. 32%). A high proportion (27%) of isolates were multidrug resistant; the most frequent combinations were clindamycin-cefalexin-tetracycline or enrofloxacin-cefalexin-penicillin patterns for Staph. aureus; enrofloxacin-oxacillin-penicillin-tetracycline patterns for NAS; clindamycin-enrofloxacin-tetracycline patterns for Streptococcus spp.; amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium-ceftiofur-polymyxin B patterns for Klebsiella spp.; and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium-ceftiofur-polymyxin B patterns for E. coli. Resistance for 4 kinds of antimicrobials highly critical for human medicine, including daptomycin, vancomycin, imipenem, and polymyxin B, ranged from 0 to 24%. In conclusion, prevalence of AMR in mastitis pathogens was high on large Chinese dairy farms, potentially jeopardizing both antimicrobial efficacy and public health. Results of this study highlighted the need for improvements in antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs in large Chinese dairy farms to reduce emergence of AMR.


China,antimicrobial resistance,bovine mastitis,minimum inhibitory counts,multidrug resistance,