According to the current recommendations on the management of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP), the intervention in this group of patients should include a programme of exercises. Pilates is a system of exercises widely used in patients with low back pain. The practices based on this method have promoted the restoration of the function of muscles involved in lumbopelvic stabilisation, that is, transversus abdominis, multifidus, diaphragm and pelvic floor muscles. During each exercise, specific principles of this method should be followed to restore or sustain the motor control of the lumbar spine and proper body posture. The aim of this study is to present the current state of knowledge concerning the application of Pilates method in the management of CNLBP as well as to define factors (eg, duration, frequency, exercises performed on a mat or specific equipment) influencing the effectiveness of Pilates in these individuals.