Nanotechnology is gaining more attention in biotechnological applications as a research area with a huge potential. Nanoparticles (NPs) can influence the rate of anaerobic digestion (AD) as the nano-sized structures, with specific physicochemical properties, interact with substrate and microorganisms. The present work has classified the various types of additives used to improve the AD processes. Nanomaterials as new additives in AD process are classified into four categories: Zero-valent metallic NPs, Metal oxide NPs, Carbon based nanomaterials, and Multi-compound NPs. In the following, application of nanomaterials in AD process is reviewed and negative and positive effects of these materials on the AD process and subsequently biogas production rate are discussed. This study confirms that design and development of new nano-sized compounds can improve the performances of the AD processes.