Application of spectral induced polarization for characterizing surfactant-enhanced DNAPL remediation in laboratory column experiments.

Affiliation

Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The widespread presence of entrapped dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in the subsurface poses a continuing challenge to groundwater remediation. Cost-effective and high-resolution subsurface characterization is a critical issue for further DNAPL recovery due to the complexity of DNAPL source zone architecture (SZA). Geophysical techniques provide a noninvasive, spatially continuous and cost-effective way for monitoring the DNAPL remediation process. In particular, the spectral induced polarization (SIP) method has shown great potential in environmental problems. In this study, we performed real-time SIP measurements on DNAPL contaminated soil in columns to quantitatively assess the ability of SIP method for monitoring surfactant-enhanced DNAPL remediation process. Chemical data was simultaneously collected during the remediation process to verify the results obtained by SIP method. Taking account into the variations of subsurface environment, we conducted a series of column flushing experiments under different flow rate, surfactant concentrations and fluid salinities. The results highlight that SIP method is able to effectively monitor the DNAPL remediation process, as well as to evaluate the remediation efficiency under different conditions. The variations in the flow rate, the concentration of surfactant and the salinity of pore water not only affect remediation effectiveness, but also have an impact on the SIP signatures. This study shows that SIP performs better for monitoring DNAPL remediation at a relatively low flow rate of ~ 0.4 m/d, low surfactant concentration of 5000 mg/L and high salinity of 1.0 S/m, with an error of saturation estimation (RMSES) <0.1.

Keywords

DNAPL,Groundwater,Hydrogeophysics,Spectral induced polarization,Surfactant-enhanced remediation,

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