Articular fibrocartilage - Why does hyaline cartilage fail to repair?

Affiliation

AO Research Institute Davos, 7270 Davos Platz, Switzerland. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Once damaged, articular cartilage has a limited potential to repair. Clinically, a repair tissue is formed, yet, it is often mechanically inferior fibrocartilage. The use of monolayer expanded versus naïve cells may explain one of the biggest discrepancies in mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) based cartilage regeneration. Namely, studies utilizing monolayer expanded MSCs, as indicated by numerous in vitro studies, report as a main limitation the induction of type X collagen and hypertrophy, a phenotype associated with endochondral bone formation. However, marrow stimulation and transfer studies report a mechanically inferior collagen I/II fibrocartilage as the main outcome. Therefore, this review will highlight the collagen species produced during the different therapeutic approaches. New developments in scaffold design and delivery of therapeutic molecules will be described. Potential future directions towards clinical translation will be discussed. New delivery mechanisms are being developed and they offer new hope in targeted therapeutic delivery.

Keywords

Cartilage,Chondrocytes,Chondrogenesis,Cytokines,Differentiation,Gene therapy,Mesenchymal stem cells,Paracrine,Secretome,

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