As the elderly population and prevalence of dementia is increasing, it is necessary to have a better comprehension of the influence of specific factors on cognitive function. Dementia is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. Lifestyle factors might either increase or decrease the risk. Even though different studies have focused on individual factors, only a few studies are available which assess all these factors as a whole. Available evidence on these factors is mainly from high income countries and much less evidence is available from low and middle income countries. As cognition is critical for elderly people to engage in a physically independent life, we aimed to identify the associated factors of cognition.