BACKGROUND : Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered the risk factors of colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemerin is a novel adipocytokine associated with the development of gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and CRC. However, the relationship between chemerin levels and CRA remains unclear. OBJECTIVE : This study is aimed at investigating the -association between serum chemerin levels and the development of CRA. METHODS : We conducted a total colonoscopy-based cross-sectional case-control study of 80 male patients with CRA and 80 male age-matched control individuals without CRA, according to their endoscopic findings. Serum chemerin concentrations were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and the OR of CRA was calculated via logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The mean serum chemerin level of the CRA group was significantly higher than that of the control group (7.9 ± 0.41 vs. 5.16 ± 0.34 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Serum chemerin level was positively correlated to the development of CRA (r = 0.34). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a high chemerin level was independently associated with the development of CRA (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.39-5.72). CONCLUSIONS : Our findings indicated that increased serum chemerin levels are positively associated with the presence of CRA in men. Chemerin may play an important role in the development of CRA.