Association between age of cannabis initiation and gray matter covariance networks in recent onset psychosis.

Affiliation

Collaborators: Koutsouleris N, Kambeitz-Ilankovic L, Sen Dong M, Erkens A, Gussmann E, Haas S, Hasan A, Hoff C, Khanyaree I, Melo A, Muckenhuber-Sternbauer S, Kohler J, Ozturk OF, Popovic D, Rangnick A, von Saldern S, Sanfelici R, Spangemacher M, Tupac A, Urquijo MF, Weiske J, Wosgien A, Kambeitz J, Ruhrmann S, Rosen M, Betz L, Haidl T, Blume K, Seves M, Kaiser N, Penzel N, Pilgram T, Lichtenstein T, Wenzel J, Woopen C, Borgwardt S, Andreou C, Egloff L, Harrisberger F, Lenz C, Leanza L, Mackintosh A, Smieskova R, Studerus E, Walter A, Widmayer S, Upthegrove R, Wood SJ, Chisholm K, Day C, Griffiths SL, Iqbal M, Pelton M, Mallikarjun P, Stainton A, Lin A, Salokangas RKR, Denissoff A, Ellila A, From T, Heinimaa M, Ilonen T, Jalo P, Laurikainen H, Lehtinen M, Luutonen A, Makela A, Paju J, Pesonen H, Armio Saila RL, Sormunen E, Toivonen A, Turtonen O, Solana AB, Abraham M, Hehn N, Schirmer T, Brambilla P, Altamura C, Belleri M, Bottinelli F, Ferro A, Re M, Monzani E, Percudani M, Sberna M, D'Agostino A, Del Fabro L, Perna G, Nobile M, Alciati A, Balestrieri M, Bonivento C, Cabras G, Fabbro F, Garzitto M, Piccin S, Bertolino A, Blasi G, Antonucci LA, Pergola G, Caforio G, Faio L, Quarto T, Gelao B, Romano R, Andriola I, Falsetti A, Barone M, Passatiore R, Sangiuliano M, Lencer R, Surman M, Bienek O, Romer G, Dannlowski U, Meisenzahl E, Schultze-Lutter F, Schmidt-Kraepelin C, Neufang S, Korda A, Rohner H.
Author information:
(1)Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital of Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
(2)Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilian-University, Munich, Germany.
(3)Department of Education, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
(4)Max-Planck School of Cognition, Leipzig, Germany.
(5)Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University, Bern, Switzerland.
(6)School of Psychology and Counselling, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
(7)Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
(8)Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
(9)MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.
(10)Institute of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.
(11)South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
(12)Institute of Mental Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
(13)Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
(14)Department of Psychiatry
(UPK), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
(15)Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
(16)Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
(17)Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
(18)Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
(19)Otto Creutzfeldt Center for Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
(20)Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.
(21)Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
(22)Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Melbourne Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
(23)Orygen, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
(24)Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
(25)Max-Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.
(26)Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital of Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. [Email]

Abstract

Cannabis use during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of developing psychosis. According to a current hypothesis, this results from detrimental effects of early cannabis use on brain maturation during this vulnerable period. However, studies investigating the interaction between early cannabis use and brain structural alterations hitherto reported inconclusive findings. We investigated effects of age of cannabis initiation on psychosis using data from the multicentric Personalized Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management (PRONIA) and the Cannabis Induced Psychosis (CIP) studies, yielding a total sample of 102 clinically-relevant cannabis users with recent onset psychosis. GM covariance underlies shared maturational processes. Therefore, we performed source-based morphometry analysis with spatial constraints on structural brain networks showing significant alterations in schizophrenia in a previous multisite study, thus testing associations of these networks with the age of cannabis initiation and with confounding factors. Earlier cannabis initiation was associated with more severe positive symptoms in our cohort. Greater gray matter volume (GMV) in the previously identified cerebellar schizophrenia-related network had a significant association with early cannabis use, independent of several possibly confounding factors. Moreover, GMV in the cerebellar network was associated with lower volume in another network previously associated with schizophrenia, comprising the insula, superior temporal, and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings are in line with previous investigations in healthy cannabis users, and suggest that early initiation of cannabis perturbs the developmental trajectory of certain structural brain networks in a manner imparting risk for psychosis later in life.