Association between blood manganese level during pregnancy and birth size: The Japan environment and children's study (JECS).


Center for Preventive Medical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan; Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]


Manganese (Mn) is both an essential element and a potential toxicant. Although a few studies have suggested a nonlinear relationship between the maternal whole blood Mn level at delivery and infant birth weight, little is known about the effects of Mn levels during pregnancy on fetal growth, particularly with regard to sex-specific differences.


SGA,birth size,manganese,pregnancy,sex difference,

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