Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a critical cause of gastrointestinal diseases. A crucial host response associated with H. pylori infection includes gastric inflammation, which is characterized by a sustained recruitment of T-helper (Th) cells to the site of infection and distinct patterns of cytokine production. Adequate nutritional status, especially frequent consumption of dietary antioxidants, appears to protect against infection with H. pylori. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether astaxanthin (AXT) from shrimp cephalothorax may modulate cytokine release of splenocytes in H. pylori-infected mice (n = 60). Six- to eight-week-old female mice were divided into three groups (n = 20 per group) to receive a daily oral dose of 10 or 40 mg of AXT for six weeks. After six weeks, a trend toward interferon gamma (IFN-γ) upregulation was found (40 mg; p < 0.05) and a significant dose-dependent increase of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-10 (both p < 0.05) was observed. These results suggest that AXT induces higher levels of IL-2 and a shift to a balanced Th1/Th2 response by increasing IFN-γ and augmenting IL-10. We concluded that AXT may influence the pattern of cytokines during H. pylori infection.