Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease presenting with recurrent eczematous lesions and intense pruritus. It is common and affects both children and adults, often beginning in infancy. Due to the unpredictable disease course, its visible skin lesions, itching and scratching followed by sleeplessness, other associated atopic diseases, and behavioral and psychiatric disorders, AD is an immense burden for patients and caregivers. AD is determined by a genetic predisposition characterized by an impaired skin barrier and a T-helper-2-predominant inflammation. Restoration of the skin barrier is the main approach for treating and preventing AD. In order to cope with acute flares, usually topical corticosteroids (TCS) are applied, while topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCI) are used mainly for maintenance therapy. There is a small group of patients who are refractory to TCS and TCI and require systemic immunosuppressive drugs such as ciclosporin. Novel, targeted therapies are under clinical investigation, among which an anti-IL-4/IL-13 receptor antibody has recently been approved in several countries. As we learn to understand the pathomechanisms of AD, the characteristics of the different patient subgroups, and the effectiveness of various targeted therapies, a personalized treatment ensuring the best efficacy and safety and, probably, a disease-modifying effect will result.