Supplementation of cholate to a high fat diet can protect mice from diet-induced, increased body mass gain. It has been hypothesized that uncoupling protein 1 dependent, non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipocytes provides the mechanism of increased energy expenditure to counteract excessive energy intake. We scrutinized this conjecture in wildtype mice and mice genetically devoid of a functional uncoupling protein 1 gene (C57BL/6J) as well as mice of the 129S6/SvEvTac strain that, in comparison, display an extraordinary capacity to recruit ectopic brown adipocytes. Protection from diet-induced, increased body mass gain by cholate supplementation was absent in 129S6/SvEvTac mice, a consequence of much lower bile acid absorption and spillover in this strain. Conversely, Ucp1-KO mice did not differ from C57BL/6J wildtype controls in any parameter assessed. Daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of C57BL/6J mice remained unaffected by cholate supplementation. We conclude that protection of mice from diet-induced, increased body mass gain by cholate supplementation depends on the specific genetic background of C57BL/6J mice, does not involve increased energy expenditure and is independent of uncoupling protein 1 dependent non-shivering thermogenesis.