Bioimaging of Pb and STIM1 in mice liver, kidney and brain using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and immunohistochemistry.

Affiliation

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Lead (Pb) pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems and has attracted worldwide attention. Pb causes hematological, central nervous system, as well as renal toxicity, and so on. Although many investigations about Pb in blood to evaluate pollution status and toxic effects have been reported, there are open question about biological behavior of Pb. In order to reveal any toxicological mechanisms or influences, we focused on the local distribution of Pb in mice organs. Lead acetate (100 mg/L and 1000 mg/L) in drinking water were given to the BALB/c mice (male, seven weeks of age, N = 24) for three weeks. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the liver and inhomogeneous distribution in the kidney and brain. The hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus had higher concentrations than other areas such as the white matter. Surprisingly, in the kidney, Pb tended to accumulate in the medulla rather than the cortex, strongly suggesting that high sensitivity areas and high accumulation areas differ. Moreover, distribution of stromal interacting protein 1 (STIM1) which is candidate gene of Pb pathway to the cells was homogenous in the liver and kidney whereas inhomogeneous in the brain. In contrast to our hypothesis, interestingly, Pb exposure under the current condition did not induce mRNA expressions for any candidate channel or transporter genes. Thus, further study should be conducted to elucidate the local distribution of Pb and other toxic metals, and pathway that Pb takes to the cells.

Keywords

Cell entry mechanisms,Distribution,Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS),Pb,Stromal interacting protein 1 (STIM1),

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