Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, 66455, Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora (ITSON), Departamento de Ciencias Agronomicas y Veterinarias, 5 de Febrero 818 Sur, C.P. 85000, Cuidad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. Electronic address: [Email]
Geobacter sulfurreducens and anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) were used suspended and immobilized in barium alginate during the biotransformation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The assays were conducted at different concentrations of 4-NP (50-400 mg/L) and AQS, either in suspended (0-400 μM) or immobilized form (0 or 760 μM), and under different pH values (5-9). G. sulfurreducens showed low capacity to reduce 4-NP in absence of AQS, especially at the highest concentrations of the contaminant. AQS improved the reduction rates from 0.0086 h-1, without AQS, to 0.149 h-1 at 400 μM AQS, which represent an increment of 17.3-fold. The co-immobilization of AQS and G. sulfurreducens in barium alginate beads (AQSi-Gi) increased the reduction rates up to 4.8- and 7.2-fold, compared to incubations with G. sulfurreducens in suspended and immobilized form, but in absence of AQS. AQSi-Gi provides to G. sulfurreducens a barrier against the possibly inhibiting effects of 4-NP.