Mohan M(1), Kumar M(2), Samant R(2), Van Hemert R Jr(2), Tian E(1), Desai S(2), van Rhee F(1), Thanendrarajan S(1), Schinke C(1), Suva LJ(3), Sharma S(2), Milad M(4), Kendrick S(5), Zangari M(6). Author information:
(1)Myeloma Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock,
AR, United States of America.
(2)Department of Radiodiagnosis, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences,
Little Rock, AR, United States of America.
(3)Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX, United States of America.
(4)Department of Bioinformatics, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR,
United States of America.
(5)Department of Biochemisty and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for
Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, United States of America. Electronic address:
(6)Myeloma Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock,
AR, United States of America. Electronic address: [Email]
Multiple myeloma (MM) patients frequently present with extensive osteolytic bone lesions. However, the impact of myeloma treatment on focal lytic lesion remineralization has not been extensively studied. In this study, the effect of anti-myeloma treatment on the extent of bone remineralization was examined and potential mediators identified. Newly diagnosed MM patients enrolled in the Total Therapy 4 and 5 (TT4; n = 231, TT5; n = 64) protocols were longitudinally evaluated for changes in radiological parameters for a median of 6.1 years. Bone remineralization was defined as a sclerotic CT change within the lytic lesion and quantified as a percentage of remineralization, using the initial lesion size as a reference. Such changes were correlated to clinical and biochemical parameters, and the gene expression profile of bone marrow biopsy. Overall, remineralization occurred in 72% of patients (213/295). Of those patients that experienced remineralization, 36% (107/295) achieved at least 25% of bone remineralization. Patients with high-risk disease defined by gene expression profile signature (GEP70 ≥ 0.66) experienced significant remineralization compared to low-risk MM. Female patients were also more likely to experience bone remineralization and in a shorter median time (2.0 vs. 3.3 y). Factors such as serum alkaline phosphatase along with high levels of RUNX2 and SOX4 gene expression correlated with increasing extent of bone remineralization. This analysis demonstrated significant remineralization of lytic lesions in MM patients treated on TT clinical trials. While the underlying mechanism remains elusive these findings support the hypothesis that patient baseline bone-related factors play a fundamental role in the skeletal repair of bone lesions in MM that provide new opportunities for improving patient outcomes.
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