Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant compounds detected in human placenta and linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Impaired trophoblast migration and invasion during early pregnancy have been implicated as potential mechanisms of pregnancy disorders. The present study investigated the effect of BDE-47, a prevalent PBDE congener, on cell migration, invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in a human first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line, HTR-8/SVneo. BDE-47 stimulated cell migration in HTR-SV/neo cells while decreasing invasion of cells into Matrigel. In addition, BDE-47 led to differential expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9 at protein and mRNA levels. In summary, BDE-47 differentially regulated cellular migration and invasion with divergent changes in MMP expression in trophoblasts. Because proper regulation of trophoblast migration and invasion is critical for placental development and function, further research is warranted to determine if exposure to PBDEs disrupts trophoblast functions with increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.