Brucea javanica oil emulsion improves the effect of radiotherapy on esophageal cancer cells by inhibiting cyclin D1-CDK4/6 axis.

Affiliation

Department of Interventional Therapy, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, 272000, Shandong Province, China. [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers around the world, and it has high incidence and mortality rates. The conventional therapy for esophageal cancer is radiotherapy, although its effect is highly limited by the resistance of esophageal cancer cells. Thus, strong radiosensitizers can be very crucial during radiotherapy against esophageal cancer. Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) is a widely used drug against various cancers, such as liver, colon, and ovarian cancer. However, its anti-cancer effect and mechanism and the use of BJOE as a radiosensitizer have not been explored in esophageal cancer.
OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the anti-cancer effect and mechanism of BJOE and explore the potential use of BJOE as a radiosensitizer during radiotherapy.
METHODS : The inhibitory effect of BJOE and its enhancement function with radiation on cell viability were examined with the calculated half-maximal effective concentration and half-maximal lethal concentration. The influence of BJOE on cell migration and invasion were measured with EC109 and JAR cells by wound-healing and transwell assay. Clonogenesis and apoptotic rate, which was measured by Hoechst staining, were investigated to confirm its enhancement function with radiation. To investigate the molecular pathway underlying the effect of BJOE, the expressions of several apoptosis- and cycle-related proteins was detected by western blotting.
RESULTS : Our results demonstrated that BJOE inhibited the growth of esophageal cancer cell lines more than normal cell lines, and it markedly reduced migration and invasion in esophageal cancer cells (EC109 and JAR). Moreover, it promoted cell apoptosis and enhanced the effect of radiotherapy against esophageal cancerous cells. In the viability test, the values of half-maximal effective concentration and half-maximal lethal concentration were reduced. Compared to the control, only around 1/5 colonies formed when using BJOE and radiation together in the clonogenic assay. The apoptotic rate in EC109 was obviously promoted when BJOE was added during radiotherapy. Our study suggests that the expression of the apoptosis-proteins Bax and p21 were increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 was stable. Further detection of downstream proteins revealed that the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 were significantly decreased.
CONCLUSIONS : BJOE has a strong anti-cancer effect on esophageal cancer and can be used as a radiosensitizer to promote apoptosis in cancerous esophageal cells via the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 axis.

Keywords

Apoptosis,Brucea javanica oil emulsion,Cyclin D1-CDK4/6 axis,Esophageal cancer,Radiosensitizer,

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