CYP-mediated resistance and cross-resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates in Aedes aegypti in the presence and absence of kdr.

Affiliation

Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Aedes aegypti thrives in urban environments and transmits several debilitating human viral diseases. Thus, our ability to control this mosquito species in endemic areas is of utmost importance. The use of insecticides, mostly pyrethroids and organophosphates (OPs), has long been the primary means of controlling A. aegypti, but widespread insecticide resistance has emerged. The two main mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti are CYP-mediated detoxification and mutations in the target site, voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Vssc), referred to as knockdown resistance (kdr). Knowledge about the contributions and interactions of these mechanisms to resistance is important for the understanding of the molecular and evolutionary basis of insecticide resistance, and to determine the effectiveness of insecticides. In this study, we address two aims: 1) determine the patterns of CYP-mediated cross-resistance to pyrethroid and OP insecticides, both in the presence and absence of kdr (S989P + V1016G), and 2) determine whether the interaction between the two mechanisms yields a greater than, less than, or additive effect on resistance. We tested seven pyrethroids and four OPs against three congenic strains of A. aegypti: ROCK (susceptible), CYP:ROCK (CR) (resistant due to CYP-mediated detoxification without kdr), and CYP + KDR:ROCK (CKR) (resistant due to both CYPs and kdr), and compared these to the congenic KDR:ROCK strain that was previously reported. We found that resistance ratios (RRs) were variable between pyrethroids and strains, ranging from 6.2- to 42-fold for CR, and 70- to 261-fold for CKR. In general, we found that CYP-mediated resistance alone contributes less to resistance than kdr. The effect of the combined mechanisms on resistance was significantly greater than additive for all pyrethroids except (1R)-trans-fenfluthrin. CYP-mediated pyrethroid resistance conferred cross-resistance to both methyl paraoxon and fenitrothion, and negative cross-resistance to methyl parathion and naled. Based on our results, we recommend that etofenprox and cyfluthrin be avoided for A. aegypti control in areas where these two resistance mechanisms are prevalent.

Keywords

Aedes aegypti,Cross-resistance,Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase,Insecticide resistance,Organophosphate,Pyrethroid,

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