Calibration strategies for determination of the In content in discarded liquid crystal displays (LCD) from mobile phones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).


Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-Filho


Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo State, 13565-905, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]


Mobile phones are one of the fastest growing types of electronic waste disposed of world-wide. One of the main components in these devices is the LCD (liquid crystal display) panel that contains conductive electrodes made of indium tin oxide. A large amount of In, which is categorized as a critical raw element, has been used to manufacture indium tin oxide films. This study applies laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the analysis of LCD samples from mobile phones in order to determine the In content. Both conventional univariate calibration and non-traditional calibration using different transition energies (emission lines), named multi-energy calibration (MEC), were assessed. To evaluate the accuracy of the results, Method EPA 3052 was performed for acid digestion of the samples using microwave-assistance, and the In content was determined by ICP OES. Indium concentrations ranged from 35 to 47 mg kg-1 for all samples evaluated. The results showed the best accuracy for LIBS methods after the spectra were normalized by the carbon line at 193.09 nm. The univariate-LIBS model showed a standard error of calibration (SEC) about 10-fold lower than the samples' concentration, LOD and LOQ of 0.3 and 1.0 mg kg-1, respectively. MEC proved to be a fast and efficient alternative for direct solid analysis, and In concentrations were determined by LIBS using only two calibration pellets. The LOD and LOQ for MEC-LIBS method were 2.1 and 7 mg kg-1, respectively.


E-waste,Indium,LCD,LIBS,Mobile phone,Multi-energy calibration,

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