Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Personalized Medicine Branch, Jefferson, AR 72079, United States. Electronic address: [Email]
Cardiotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX) treatment in cancer patients. Currently, there is a lack of sensitive biomarkers to predict the risk of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Using SOMAmer-based proteomic technology, 1129 proteins were profiled to identify potential early biomarkers of cardiotoxicity in plasma from male B6C3F1 mice given a weekly intravenous dose of 3 mg/kg DOX or saline (SAL) for 2, 3, 4, 6, or 8 weeks (6, 9, 12, 18, or 24 mg/kg cumulative DOX doses, respectively). Also, a group of mice received the cardio-protectant, dexrazoxane (DXZ; 60 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) 30 min before a weekly DOX or SAL dose. Proteomic analysis in plasma collected a week after the last dose showed a significant ≥1.2-fold change in level of 18 proteins in DOX-treated mice compared to SAL-treated counterparts during 8-week exposure. Of these, neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 1 (NOTCH1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), mitochondrial glutamate carrier 2, Wnt inhibitory factor 1, legumain, and mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 were increased in plasma at 6 mg/kg cumulative DOX dose, prior to the release of myocardial injury marker, cardiac troponin I at 12 mg/kg and higher cumulative doses. These six proteins also remained significantly elevated following myocardial injury or pathology at 24 mg/kg. Pretreatment of mice with DXZ significantly attenuated DOX-induced elevated levels of only NOTCH1 and vWF with mitigation of cardiotoxicity. This suggests NOTCH1 and vWF as candidate early biomarkers of DOX cardiotoxicity, which may help in addressing a clinically important question of identifying cancer patients at risk for cardiotoxicity.