Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Intensive Care Units in the United States: a Potential Role for New β-Lactam Combination Agents.


Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, USA [Email]


Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a frequent pathogen in the intensive care unit (ICU), has the propensity to develop antibiotic resistance. In particular, carbapenem-nonsusceptible (NS) P. aeruginosa poses tremendous challenges, and new antibiotics will be needed to treat this phenotype. Here we determine carbapenem nonsusceptibility rates for contemporary P. aeruginosa isolates from U.S. ICUs and in vitro activities of new β-lactam combination agents. Between July 2017 and June 2018, consecutive nonduplicate P. aeruginosa isolates from blood and respiratory tract sources were recovered from patients admitted to the ICUs of 36 geographically diverse U.S. hospitals. Antimicrobial susceptibility to the following antipseudomonal agents was tested: ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime-avibactam, and imipenem-relebactam (an investigational β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor). MICs and susceptibility rates were measured using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference broth microdilution methodology. Among the 538 consecutive ICU P. aeruginosa isolates collected, carbapenem nonsusceptibility was observed for 35% of the isolates and was more common among respiratory tract versus bloodstream specimens. Susceptibility rates, MIC50 values, and MIC90 values were as follows: ceftazidime-avibactam, 92.8%, 2 μg/ml, and 8 μg/ml; imipenem-relebactam, 91.5%, 0.25 μg/ml, and 2 μg/ml; ceftazidime, 77.1%, 4 μg/ml, and 64 μg/ml; meropenem, 72.7%, 1 μg/ml, and 16 μg/ml; imipenem, 67.1%, 2 μg/ml, and 16 μg/ml. Most (>75%) of the carbapenem-NS isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-relebactam. In these U.S. hospital ICUs, carbapenem-NS P. aeruginosa isolates from respiratory sources were frequently observed. Novel β-lactam combination agents appear to retain active in vitro susceptibility profiles against these isolates and may play a role in the treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-NS P. aeruginosa strains.


Gram-negative resistance,bloodstream,ceftazidime-avibactam,imipenem-relebactam,respiratory,surveillance,