Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Health Care System, New York, NY. Electronic address: [Email]
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure of >25mm Hg at rest, is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. The prevalence and outcomes of PH among patients referred for major noncardiac surgery in the United States are unknown. Patients ≥18 years of age hospitalized for noncardiac surgery were identified from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample data from 2004 to 2014. Pulmonary hypertension was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes. The primary outcome was perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events (MACCE), defined as in-hospital death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. Among 17,853,194 hospitalizations for major noncardiac surgery, 143,846 (0.81%) had PH. MACCE occurred in 8.3% of hospitalizations with any diagnosis of PH in comparison to 2.0% of those without PH (p <0.001), driven by an increased frequency of death (4.4% vs 1.1%, p <0.001) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.2% vs 0.6%, p <0.001). After adjusting for demographics, clinical covariates, and surgery type, PH remained independently associated with MACCE (aOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.46). In conclusion, PH is associated with perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events. Careful patient selection, recognition of perioperative risks, and appropriate intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring may improve perioperative cardiovascular outcomes.