The present review is mainly focused on the overview of carrier mediated extraction (principles and applications) being reported over the last two decades and discusses the extraction process through carriers in various extraction methods such as Bulk liquid membranes, supported liquid membranes, emulsion liquid membranes and polymer inclusion membranes. Several types of carriers such as neutral, anionic, cationic, macrocyclic and supramulecular carriers are discussed. Also their application for metal, anions, drugs and environmental compounds are investigated. Carriers have been demonstrated to be useful for the selective extraction and recovery of numerous cations and anions enhancing the extraction properties of traditional solvent extraction and ion-exchange processes. Several types of carriers have different transport mechanisms. In these mechanisms, transport conﬁgurations are addressed and emphasized and the detailed information on the type of carrier are presented along with their speciﬁc separation modes. The performance of different carriers in terms of selectivity as well as efficiency are also discussed. Finally, the application of different carriers for the extraction of various compounds are compared and reviewed. To our best knowledge no reviews have been published on carrier-mediated extraction methods.