Central venous catheter-related thrombosis in children and adults.


Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States of America; Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, United States of America. Electronic address: [Email]


Central venous catheters (CVC) have revolutionized the care of patients requiring long-term venous access. With increasing use of CVCs, the incidence of catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) has been on the rise. CRT constitutes 10% of all deep venous thromboses (DVT) in adults and 50-80% of all DVTs among children. The incidence of CRT varies significantly based on patient characteristics, catheter-related factors and the steps involved in the process of catheter insertion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with a higher risk of CRT, including older age, hospitalization, CVC insertion in the subclavian vein, left-sided CVC insertion, longer duration of catheter, catheter-to-vein ratio > 0.45, and type of CVC. A majority of patients with CRT are asymptomatic. Duplex ultrasound is the initial diagnostic modality of choice, though other modalities like CT angiography and MRV may be necessary for certain CRT locations. Current guidelines recommend maintaining a catheter unless nonfunctional or unneeded, in addition to systemic anticoagulation. Data guiding anticoagulant management specific to upper extremity VTE is lacking, and practice is mostly extrapolated from data on lower extremities. Further studies are required to establish evidence-based guidelines in the management of adults and children with CRT, and in particular the role of direct oral anticoagulants. In this review, we describe the knowledge gaps that exist in multiple aspects of CRT and the need for large collaborative studies to improve the care of patients with CRT.


Anticoagulation (6 max),Catheter-related thrombosis,Central venous catheter,Venous thromboembolism,