Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Motor Learning in a Complex Overhand Throwing Task.


Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, 89154-3034, USA. [Email]


Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) enhances motor adaptation, skill acquisition, and learning in relatively simple motor tasks. The purpose was to examine the influence of c-tDCS on motor learning in a complex overhand throwing task. Forty-two young adults were randomized to a c-tDCS group or a SHAM group and completed a practice session and a retention session. The practice session involved an overhand throwing task to a small target (6 m away) in a pre-test block, 6 practice blocks, a post-test block, and a retention-test block (24 h later). c-tDCS or SHAM was applied during overhand throwing in the practice blocks. The decline in endpoint error was greater for the tDCS group compared to SHAM at the end of practice (P = 0.019) and at retention (P = 0.003). The findings indicate that a single application of c-tDCS enhances motor learning in a complex overhand throwing task.


Motor adaptation,Motor learning,Overhand throwing,Transcranial direct current stimulation,