Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) MRI with CO2 challenge: A technical review.

Affiliation

Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, United States. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an indicator of cerebrovascular reserve and provides important information about vascular health in a range of brain conditions and diseases. Unlike steady-state vascular parameters, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV), CVR measures the ability of cerebral vessels to dilate or constrict in response to challenges or maneuvers. Therefore, CVR mapping requires a physiological challenge while monitoring the corresponding hemodynamic changes in the brain. The present review primarily focuses on methods that use CO2 inhalation as a physiological challenge while monitoring changes in hemodynamic MRI signals. CO2 inhalation has been increasingly used in CVR mapping in recent literature due to its potency in causing vasodilation, rapid onset and cessation of the effect, as well as advances in MRI-compatible gas delivery apparatus. In this review, we first discuss the physiological basis of CVR mapping using CO2 inhalation. We then review the methodological aspects of CVR mapping, including gas delivery apparatus, the timing paradigm of the breathing challenge, the MRI imaging sequence, and data analysis. In addition, we review alternative approaches for CVR mapping that do not require CO2 inhalation.

Keywords

Arterial spin labeling,BOLD,Carbon dioxide,Cerebrovascular reactivity,Cerebrovascular reserve,End-tidal CO2,Hypercapnia,Phase-contrast MRI,

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