Characterisation and geographical traceability of Italian goji berries.


Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Food Science and Nutrition Section, University of Perugia, Via S. Costanzo 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


This work characterises and distinguishes Italian and Asian goji berries, combining three analytical approaches to determine 5 light stable isotope ratios, 57 mineral elements and 14 carotenoids. The study analyses stable isotope ratios and provides full HPLC-DAD-MS characterisation of the carotenoid fraction in goji berries for the first time. The isotopic composition of Italian berries was characterised by δ13C values ranging between -28.2‰ and -25.7‰, δ15N between 2.3 and 7.3‰, δ34S between 2.6 and 7.9‰, and D/H between -112 and -49‰. Italian goji berries were shown to have a particular composition and interesting nutritional characteristics, specifically a higher total carotenoid content (355 mg/100 g dw mean content vs 198 mg/100 g dw) and higher content of some micronutrients: K, B, Cu, Mo, Se, and Zn. On the basis of δ34S, Y, U, Cu, Rb, zeaxanthin palmitate and total carotenoid content, discriminant analysis correctly classified all samples according to their geographical origin.


Carotenoids,Elemental profile,Geographical traceability,Goji berries,HPLC-DAD-MS,Stable isotope ratio,

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