Characterization of Cementation Factor of Unconsolidated Granular Materials Through Time Domain Reflectometry with Variable Saturated Conditions.


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205, North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-2352, USA. [Email]


The cementation factor is necessary to determine porosity via the Archie equation, and its range of values has been suggested in many previous studies. However, the cementation factors in the literature are limited to fully saturated conditions, and it may thus be inaccurate to use the same value in other saturation conditions. The objective of this study is to characterize how the cementation factor varies depending on the saturation percentage. In this study, glass beads and soil are selected as the specimens, and two relative density values, 40% and 80%, are selected. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is used to obtain both the saturation and electrical resistivity of the specimens. TDR is installed in the cell, and fluid is continuously circulated from the bottom to the top of the porous material for 30 min. The estimated saturation increases with time and the electrical resistivity is reduced during the circulation. Finally, the cementation factor at every saturated stage is determined, and the error ratio based on the porosity is calculated to show the importance of the cementation factor. The results show that there is a high error ratio when an unsuitable cementation factor that does not consider the saturation condition is used. This study demonstrates that the method for determining the actual cementation factor using TDR and the Archie equation can be applied in various saturation conditions.


cementation factor,dielectric constant,electrical resistivity,saturation,time domain reflectometry,

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