Characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from perennial ryegrass and genome mining of novel antimicrobial gene clusters.


Department of Molecular Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. [Email]


BACKGROUND : Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are good alternatives for chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which cause severe environmental problems worldwide. Even though many studies focus on PGPR, most of them are limited in plant-microbe interaction studies and neglect the pathogens affecting ruminants that consume plants. In this study, we expand the view to the food chain of grass-ruminant-human. We aimed to find biocontrol strains that can antagonize grass pathogens and mammalian pathogens originated from grass, thus protecting this food chain. Furthermore, we deeply mined into bacterial genomes for novel biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) that can contribute to biocontrol.
RESULTS : We screened 90 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of healthy Dutch perennial ryegrass and characterized seven strains (B. subtilis subsp. subtilis MG27, B. velezensis MG33 and MG43, B. pumilus MG52 and MG84, B. altitudinis MG75, and B. laterosporus MG64) that showed a stimulatory effect on grass growth and pathogen antagonism on both phytopathogens and mammalian pathogens. Genome-mining of the seven strains discovered abundant BGCs, with some known, but also several potential novel ones. Further analysis revealed potential intact and novel BGCs, including two NRPSs, four NRPS-PKS hybrids, and five bacteriocins.
CONCLUSIONS : Abundant potential novel BGCs were discovered in functional protective isolates, especially in B. pumilus, B. altitudinis and Brevibacillus strains, indicating their great potential for the production of novel secondary metabolites. Our report serves as a basis to further identify and characterize these compounds and study their antagonistic effects against plant and mammalian pathogens.


Bacillus,Bacteriocins,Biosynthetic gene clusters,Brevibacillus,Nonribosomal peptides,Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria,Polyketides,

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