Chemical characterisation of PM2.5 emitted from motor vehicles powered by diesel, gasoline, natural gas and methanol fuel.

Affiliation

Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effect in Arid Region of Ministry of Education, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710064, China; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710064, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Vehicle emissions are affected by factors such as vehicle type, fuel quality, and engine repair. Therefore, mobile source profiles should be established based on a characteristic fleet for a specific region. This study characterised the chemical composition of PM2.5 emitted from motor vehicles that are commonly used in Xi'an through dynamometer tests. The tested fleet included light duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs; eight sample sets), heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs; six sample sets), light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs; eight sample sets), one natural gas vehicle (NGV; four sample sets) and one methanol vehicle (MV; two sample sets). Similarities and differences among the source profiles were compared and evaluated. Overall, carbon species (13.14-59.11%) were the major components of PM2.5 for each type of vehicle, and the content of organic carbon (OC) was generally higher than that of elemental carbon (EC). Moreover, NO3- (18.577-220.062 mg·g-1) was the dominant water-soluble ion and the Ca2+ (2.429-17.209 mg·g-1) and Na+ (1.966-20.798 mg·g-1) contents in PM2.5 were high. In terms of elements, the PM2.5 emitted from various types of vehicles consisted of abundant Al (2.183-94.949 mg·g-1), Fe (0.567-12.297 mg·g-1), and Zn (0.659-5.195 mg·g-11). In addition, the PM2.5 profiles were significantly affected by fuel type. In general, emissions from the LDGVs and NGV exhibited higher contents of OC (477.0-479.1 mg·g-1). The greatest fractions of water-soluble ions (32.94%) and total elements (11.74%) were observed in emissions from the NGV and MV, respectively. For the same type of vehicle, the OC/EC ratio was possibly dependent on the emission standards. The PM2.5 emitted from the LDDVs with stricter emission standards exhibited higher OC/EC ratios, whereas the OC/EC ratios displayed a decreasing trend for the LDGVs under more stringent emission standards.

Keywords

Chemical composition,Dynamometer test,PM(2.5),Vehicle exhaust,

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