Chemometric authentication of farming systems of origin of food (milk and ripened cheese) using infrared spectra, fatty acid profiles, flavor fingerprints, and sensory descriptions.


Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Milk samples from 1264 cows in 85 farms were authenticated for different farming-systems using a 10-fold cross-validated linear-discriminant-analysis using Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIRS) and gas-chromatographic fatty-acid (FA) profiles. FTIRS gave correct classification greater than FAs (97.4% vs. 81.1%) during calibration, but slightly worse in validation (73.5% vs 77.3%) and their combination improved the results. All milk samples were processed into ripened model-cheeses, and analyzed by near-infrared-spectrometry (NIRS), by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometry for their volatile organic compound (VOCs) fingerprint and by panel sensory profiling (SENS). Farming-system authentication on cheese samples was less efficient than on milk, but still possible. The instrumental methods yielded similar validation results, better than SENS, and their combination improved the correct classification rate. The efficiency of the different technics was affected by specific farming systems. In conclusion, dairy products could be discriminated for farming-systems with acceptable accuracy, but the methods tested differ in sampling procedure, rapidity and costs.


Food authentication,Food origin discrimination,Food quality monitoring, volatile organic compound,Silage feeding,

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