Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is mainly controlled with synthetic insecticides such as chlorantraniliprole. However, these compounds may affect non-target organs of insect metabolism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect in the midgut goblet cells of A. gemmatalis caterpillars exposed to chlorantraniliprole. The midgut of these caterpillars, which ingested the insecticide in medium-lethal dose (LD50), was dissected and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The goblet cells microvilli, after exposure to the insecticide, were disorganized and degenerated. This can compromise ionic homeostasis and nutrient absorption, impair physiological mechanisms of detoxification, and reduce the movement of food boluses throughout the insect midgut.