BACKGROUND : Hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) is employed for patients with laterally advanced cholangiocarcinoma. However, the survival benefit of this extended approach remains controversial. The aim of this study is to identify a tumor feature benefiting from HPD from the standpoint of long-term survival. METHODS : Patients with cholangiocarcinoma who underwent HPD with curative intent between 2001 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Tumors were radiologically classified by preoperative cholangiogram. Diffuse type was defined as significant tumor/stricture located from the hilar to intrapancreatic duct; localized type was defined as tumor otherwise. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify prognostic indicators. RESULTS : Of 100 study patients, 28 (28%) patients had diffuse tumor type, while the remaining 72 (72%) patients had localized tumors. The former group showed significantly longer lateral length (43 versus 22 mm, P < 0.001) and more frequent pancreatic invasion (50% versus 32%, P = 0.110), advanced T classification (64% versus 49%, P = 0.185), and nodal metastasis (57% versus 47%, P = 0.504), compared with the latter group. The survival for patients with diffuse tumor type was significantly worse than that for patients with localized tumor type, with 5-year survival rates of 59.0% versus 26.3%, respectively (P = 0.003). Multivariable analysis identified four independent factors deteriorating long-term survival: cholangiographic diffuse tumor (P = 0.021), higher age (P = 0.020), percutaneous biliary drainage (P = 0.007), and portal vein resection (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS : Presurgical cholangiographic classification, diffuse or localized type, is a tumor-related factor closely associated with survival probability; therefore, it may be a useful feature for patient selection prior to HPD for cholangiocarcinoma.