Citrus peels waste as a source of value-added compounds: Extraction and quantification of bioactive polyphenols.


Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]


A method combining solid-liquid extraction based on ethanolic aqueous solution, cLC-DAD and chemometrics, was performed to extract and quantify polyphenols from citrus peels. LC-MS/MS was also employed for chemical profiling. The effect of extraction variables on the recovery was examined by experimental factorial design. Data were evaluated using multifactorial-ANOVA, response surface analysis and Principal Component Analysis. trans-Ferulic and p-coumaric antioxidants were found in lower quantities (<1.4 mg·g-1) in all peel extracts. Narangin flavonoid was also identified in all samples, while rutin flavonol was determined in the concentration range of 3.3-4.7 mg·g-1. The most abundant polyphenol in the extracts obtained from all evaluated citrus samples was the flavanone hesperidin (280-673 mg·g-1). Furthermore, peel extracts were evaluated in terms of total polyphenol and flavonoid content, total antioxidant activity and DPPH free radical scavenging. The obtained results suggested that evaluated citrus peel by-products could be reused as a source of polyphenols and transformed into value-added products.


Antioxidant activity,Chemometrics,Citrus waste,Extraction,LC-MS/MS confirmation,Phenolic compounds,cLC-DAD analysis,