Classes of ITD Predict Outcomes in AML Patients Treated with FLT3 Inhibitors.


Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [Email]


Recurrent internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are observed in various cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where ITD mutations in tyrosine kinase receptor FLT3 are associated with poor prognostic outcomes. Several FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i) are in clinical trials for high-risk FLT3-ITD-positive AML. However, the variability of survival following FLT3i treatment suggests that the mere presence of FLT3-ITD mutations might not guarantee effective clinical response. Motivated by the heterogeneity of FLT3-ITD mutations, we investigated the effects of FLT3-ITD structural features on the response of AML patients to treatment.Experimental Design: We developed the HeatITup (HEAT diffusion for Internal Tandem dUPlication) algorithm to identify and quantitate ITD structural features including nucleotide composition. Using HeatITup, we studied the impact of ITD structural features on the clinical response to FLT3i and induction chemotherapy in FLT3-ITD-positive AML patients.