Charles Perkins Centre, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Heart Research Institute, Newtown, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/@DrAnnaW_lab
Immobilized liquid (IL) surface coatings are an emerging technology that provide to materials the ability to repel complex biological fluids and hold promise in medical applications to prevent biological fouling, especially in the context of preventing medical device-induced thrombosis, fibrosis, and biofilm formation. However, little is known about the biological interactions of the IL with proteins and cells, and an increased understanding is critical for optimal device application, function, and successful clinical translation. Here, we review existing clinical and biological knowledge of the liquids used in these surface coatings, recent developments in understanding the biological interactions of IL coatings, and future directions and challenges for the clinical translation of this new class of IL surface coatings.