Clinical and biochemical profile, precipitants and prognostic factors of diabetic ketoacidosis: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center of north India.


Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Electronic address: [Email]


BACKGROUND : We aimed to retrospectively investigate the clinical and biochemical profile of Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) patients and various precipitating and prognostic factors.
METHODS : This was a hospital-based retrospective observational study, conducted in a tertiary care hospital in north India, from March 2014 to March 2017.
RESULTS : Among 50 patients who satisfied the study criteria, 10 (20%) had DKA as their first presentation. Most common symptoms were nausea and vomiting (74%). Noncompliance was the major precipitating cause in 26 cases (52%) followed by infections in 18 cases (36%). The mean value of blood sugar at presentation was 406.8 ± 130.4 mg/dl with serum ketone 5.38 ± 1.56 mmol/l and mean pH 7.128 ± 0.157 with severe DKA in 14 (28%) patients. Mean duration of hospital stay was 8.2.±5.0 days, and low hemoglobin (p = 0.019) and high pulse rate (p = 0.025) were independent predictors of a longer stay.
CONCLUSIONS : With intensive care, mortality did not occur; however, non-compliance remained the most common precipitating cause of DKA followed by infections.

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