Clinical characteristics of 30 COVID-19 patients with epilepsy: A retrospective study in Wuhan.

Affiliation

Sun M(1), Ruan X(2), Li Y(2), Wang P(1), Zheng S(1), Shui G(1), Li L(1), Huang Y(3), Zhang H(4).
Author information:
(1)Department of Endocrinology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430021, China.
(2)Department of Pharmacy, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430021, China.
(3)Department of Bidding, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430021, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(4)Department of Endocrinology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430021, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to present the clinical characteristics of 30 hospitalized cases with epileptic seizures and coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). METHODS: This is a retrospective observational research study. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records in 1550 patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, who were hospitalized in Wuhan Central Hospital, China, from 1 January to 31 April 2020. 30 COVID-19 patients with the diagnosis of epilepsy were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, complications, treatments, and clinical outcomes of 30 cases were collected and analyzed. RESULT: Of 30 patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy and COVID-19, 13 patients (43.4%) had new-onset epileptic seizures without an epilepsy history(new-onset seizure group, NS group), ten patients(33.3%) had an epilepsy history with a recurrent epileptic seizure (recurrent seizure group, RS group) and seven patients(23.3%) had an epilepsy history but no seizure during the course of COVID-19 (epilepsy history group, EH group). Patients in the RS group had a larger number of other-neurological-disease histories than those in the NS and EH groups (7/10[70%] VS 1/13 [7.7%] VS 1/7[14.3%]); the difference between the RS group and NS group is significant (P < 0.05). Patients in the NE and RS groups suffered more severe/critical COVID-19 infection than patients in the EH group (10/13[76.9%] VS 6/10[60%] VS 1/7[14.3%]); the difference between the NS group and EH group is significant (P < 0.05). 36.7% of patients had one to five neurological complications, and 46.4% of patients had 6-10 neurological complications. The complications in patients with seizures (in the RS and NS groups) seem to be more than those without seizures (in the EH group), but it did not reach statistical significance. The proportion of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) treatment before admission was higher in the EH group than in the RE group(7/7 [100%] VS 2/10 [20%], P < 0.05). The mortality of 30 patients with epilepsy and COVID-19 was 36.67%. The mortality of the NS group(38.5%) and the RS group(50%) were a little higher than in the EH group(14.3%). None of the convalescent patients had a recurrent seizure, and there were no more deaths in the 3-month follow-up after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with recurrent epileptic seizures had more underlying neurological diseases than patients who had an epilepsy history but without a seizure. Patients with new-onset and recurrent epileptic seizures suffered more severe/critical COVID-19, which may lead to a worse prognosis. If patients with epilepsy history continue using AEDs during COVID-19 pandemics, the risk of recurrent seizure may be reduced, and a good prognosis for patients with epilepsy history could be expected.