Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a condition that can be inherited or acquired. It causes diffuse periosteal new bone formation on the long bones, with a predilection for the appendicular skeleton. When acquired, it is a nonspecific indicator of systemic disease that arises following a primary condition. This paper reviews the palaeopathological literature associated with this rare condition. It also describes the first possible case of co-morbidity associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in an adult skeleton (cal. BC 170 - 1 cal. AD) from the mobile pastoralist Sarmatian culture of the Volga steppes of Russia.