Combining in silico and in vitro approaches to identification of potent inhibitor against phospholipase A2 (PLA2).


Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China; Center of Interdisciplinary Science-Computational Life Sciences, College of Food Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou High-tech Industrial Development Zone, 100 Lianhua Street, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China; Peng Cheng Laboratory, Vanke Cloud City Phase I Building 8, Xili Street, Nashan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, PR China; Joint Laboratory of International Cooperation in Metabolic and Developmental Sciences, Ministry of Education, PR China. Electronic address: [Email]


Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is the main constituent of snake venom. PLA2 enzymes catalyze the Ca2+ dependent hydrolysis of 2-acyl ester bonds of 3-sn-phospholipids, releasing fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Inside the body of the victim, PLA2 from snake venom induces either direct or indirect pathophysiological effects, including anticoagulant, inflammatory, neurotoxic, cardiotoxic, edematogenic, and myotoxic activities. Therefore, there is a need to find the potential inhibitors against PLA2 responsible for snakebite. In this study, we employed in silico and in vitro methods to identify the potential inhibitor against PLA2. Virtual screening and molecular docking studies were performed to find potent inhibitor against PLA2 using Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCM). Based on these studies, Scutellarin (TCM3290) was selected and calculated by density functional theory calculation at B3LYP/6-31G**++ level to explore the stereo-electronic features of the molecule. Further, molecular docking and DFT of Minocycline was carried out. Quantum polarized ligand docking was performed to optimize the geometry of the protein-ligand complexes. The protein-ligand complexes were subjected to molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy calculations. The residence time of a protein-ligand complex is a critical parameter affecting natural influences in vitro. It is nonetheless a challenging errand to expect, regardless of the accessibility of incredible PC assets and a large variety of computing procedures. In this metadynamics situation, we used the conformational flooding technique to deal with rank inhibitors constructions. The systematic free energy perturbation (FEP) protocol and calculate the energy of both complexes. Finally, the selected compound of TCM3290 was studied in vitro analysis such as inhibition of PLA2 activity, hyaluronidase activity and fibrinogenolytic activity. The TCM3290 had a more binding affinity compare to Minocycline, and interacted with the key residues of TYR63 and GLY31. DFT represented the highest HOMO and LUMO energy of 0.15146 eV. MD simulation with 100 ns proved that an inhibitor binding mode is more stable inside the binding site of PLA2. In vitro analysis shows that TCM3290 significantly neutralized by PLA2. The above observations confirmed that Scutellarin (TCM3290) had a potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and could hypothetically be used for therapeutic drives of snakebite envenomation.


Anti-venom,Fibrinogenolytic activity,MD simulation,Molecular docking,PLA2,

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