This study evaluated the potential toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) on saltwater microcrustacean Artemia salina nauplii under ISO TS 20787 guideline. To investigate the acute toxicity of these nanomaterials, the nauplii were exposed to different concentrations of 0 (control), 0.39, 1.56, 6.25, 25 and 100 mg/L AgNPs and concentrations of 0 (control), 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/L AgNWs for 72 h. Immobilization rate of A. salina exposed to both AgNPs and AgNWs for 72 h increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The 72 h EC10 and EC50 were found to be 1.48 ± 0.6 and 10.70 ± 1.3 mg/L for AgNPs, respectively, and 0.03 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.04 mg/L for AgNWs, respectively. Based on the EC10 and EC50 values, the toxicity of AgNWs was significantly higher than AgNPs (P < 0.05). Oxidative stress resulted from 48 h exposure to both AgNPs and AgNWs in A. salina was assessed by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The results revealed that both AgNPs and AgNWs could induce ROS production. The SOD activity decreased significantly with the increase of exposure concentration (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present results show that both nanomaterials have toxic effects on A. salina nauplii and thus, more effort should be made to prevent their release into saltwater ecosystems and trophic transfer in the aquatic food chain.