Complications for a Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson Syndrome Patient with a Germline DKC1 A353V Variant Undergoing Unrelated Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

Affiliation

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei 11259, Taiwan. [Email]

Abstract

Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS), caused by several different germline mutations resulting in severe telomeropathy, presents with early-onset growth anomalies and neurologic/developmental disorders including characteristic cerebellar hypoplasia. Early mortalities may arise from immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure if not successfully salvaged by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Few reports have characterized the persistent somatic progression of HHS after successful HSCT. We present an HHS patient with an X-linked recessive DKC1 c.1058C > T; Ala353Val mutation who successfully underwent unrelated HSCT at 5 years of age. After months of early infections and organ toxicities immediately post-transplant, he had more than two years of excellent quality of life with correction of bone marrow failure and immunodeficiency. However, episodic massive variceal bleeding and progressive respiratory insufficiency, which were secondary to non-cirrhotic portal hypertension and pulmonary arteriovenous shunts, respectively, developed over 2 years after HSCT and resulted in his death from respiratory failure 4 years after HSCT. This outcome suggests that while HSCT can correct bone marrow failure and immunodeficiency, it may fail to prevent or even aggravate other fatal processes, such as portal hypertension and pulmonary arteriovenous shunting.

Keywords

Hoyeraal–Hreidarsson syndrome,dyskeratosis congenita,portal hypertension,pulmonary arteriovenous shunts,reduced intensity conditioning,telomeropathy,unrelated peripheral blood stem cell transplantation,vascular aging,

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