Nguyen MTT(1), Kim J(2), Seo N(3), Lee AH(2), Kim YK(4), Jung JA(4), Li D(5), To XHM(6), Huynh KTN(6), Van Le T(7), Israr B(8), Nazir A(8), Seo JA(3), Lee D(3), An HJ(3), Kim J(9). Author information:
(1)Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon
34134, Korea; College of Agriculture, Can Tho University, Can Tho, 900000,
(2)Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon
(3)Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National
University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.
(4)Maeil Asia Human Milk Research Center, Maeil Dairies Co. Ltd., 63
Jinwiseo-ro, Jinwi-myeon, Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do 17706, Korea.
(5)College of Food Science and Engineering, Changchun University, Changchun
(6)Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy
at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.
(7)Faculty of Nursing and Medical Technology, University of Medicine and
Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam.
(8)Faculty of Food, Nutrition, and Home Science, University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.
(9)Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon
34134, Korea. Electronic address: [Email]
Human milk lipids provide not only energy but also indispensable bioactive components such as essential fatty acids. To establish the recommended daily intake value and guidelines for infant formula, a reference library of fatty acid composition has been generated from 4 Asian countries (South Korea, China, Vietnam, and Pakistan). Regardless of country, palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18:1), and linolenic acid (C18:2) were the 3 most abundant fatty acids in human milk and account for more than 75% of total fatty acids (total FA). However, there were several considerable differences between fatty acids, particularly n-3 and n-6 (omega-3 and omega-6) groups. Chinese mothers' milk had a high concentration of linoleic acid at 24.38 ± 10.02% of total FA, which may be due to maternal diet. Among the 4 countries, Pakistani mothers' milk contained a high amount of saturated fatty acid (56.83 ± 5.96% of total FA), and consequently, polyunsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 and n-6, were significantly lower than in other countries. It is noteworthy that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in Pakistani mothers' milk was 44.8 ± 33.3 mg/L, which is only 25 to 30% of the levels in the other 3 countries, suggesting the need for DHA supplementation for infants in Pakistan. Moreover, the ratio of n-6 to n-3 was also remarkably high in Pakistani mothers' milk (15.21 ± 4.96), being 1.4- to 1.7-fold higher than in other countries. The average DHA:ARA ratio in Asian human milk was 1.01 ± 0.79. Korean mothers' milk showed a high DHA:ARA ratio, with a value of 1.30 ± 0.98, but Pakistani mothers' milk had a significantly lower value (0.42 ± 0.12). The fatty acid compositions and anthropometric data of mother (body mass index, age) did not show any correlation. The obtained data might provide information about human milk compositions in the Asian region that could benefit from setting up recommended nutrient intake and infant formula for Asian babies.
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