Comprehensive analysis of renal arsenic accumulation using images based on X-ray fluorescence at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels.


Institute of Research and Development in Process Engineering, Biotechnology and Alternative Energies (PROBIEN), CONICET-National University of Comahue, Neuquén, Argentina; School of Agricultural Sciences, National University of Comahue, Río Negro, Argentina. Electronic address: [Email]


Exposure to arsenic (As) through drinking water results in accumulation of As and its methylated metabolites in several organs, promoting adverse health effects, particularly potential development of cancer. Arsenic toxicity is a serious global health concern since over 200 million people are chronically exposed worldwide. Abundant biochemical and epidemiological evidence indicates that the kidney is an important site of uptake and accumulation of As, and mitochondrial damage plays a crucial role in arsenic toxicity. However, non-destructive analyses and in situ images revealing As fate in renal cells and tissue are scarce or almost non-existent. In this work, kidney tissue from exposed rats was analyzed by EDXRF (Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence), micro-SRXRF (micro X-ray Fluorescence using Synchrotron Radiation), SRTXRF (SRXRF in total reflection condition), SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscope in combination with EDXRF) and SRXRF-XANES (SRXRF in combination with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy). Our results provide evidence of renal cortex distribution of As with periglomerular localization, co-localization of S, Cu and As in subcellular compartment of proximal tubule cells, mono-methylarsonous acid accumulation in renal cortex mitochondria, and altered subcellular concentration and distribution of other elements.


Arsenic,Bioaccumulation,Chemical mapping,Imaging,Mitochondria,Nephrotoxicity,Thioarsenicals,XRF,