Instituto de Química, Centro Interdisciplinar de Energia e Ambiente (CIENAM), Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua Barão de Jeremoabo, s/n, Ondina, CEP 40170-290 Salvador, BA, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]
The present review reports, for the first time, various comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) applications for different fossil fuel matrices (crude oil, heavy gas oil (HGO), light and middle distillates, coal and shale oil) for the determination of nitrogen-containing compounds. The focus is on the various types of detectors (universal and specific), and their applicability for the separation and speciation of nitrogen compounds (N-compounds) was evaluated. The capability of GC×GC to provide additional chemically specific information using different detector types, including a flame ionization detector (FID), a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD), a nitrogen-phosphorus (NPD) detector and detectors in combination with mass spectrometry (MS), is described. The coelutions (detection by MS) for various N-compounds, analytes and components of other classes, such as those that are oxygenates and hydrocarbons, are discussed.