School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China; National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Development of multifunctional bone grafting biomaterials with both osteogenesis and angiogenesis properties have earned increasing interest in the field of regenerative medicine. In the present investigation, copper-doped β-tricalcium phosphate (Cu-TCP) powders were successfully synthesized. And Cu-containing calcium phosphate cement (Cu-CPC) was acquired through uniformly mixing CPC and Cu-TCP powders, with Cu-TCP serving as the donor of Cu2+. Cu-CPC exhibited suitable setting time, and the incorporation of Cu-TCP aggregating into CPC exhibited positive effect on the compressive strength while Cu2+ was in lower concentration. Investigation results showed that Cu-CPC had relatively low releasing amount of Cu2+, which was attributed to the re-bonding of Cu2+ into the newly formed HA crystals on surface. In vitro osteogenesis and angiogenesis properties of Cu-CPC were systematically evaluated through co-culture with mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) respectively. The results indicated dose-dependent biological functions of Cu2+ in Cu-CPCs. The mBMSCs and HUVECs showed well activity and attachment morphology on TCP/CPC, 0.05 Cu-TCP/CPC, 0.1 Cu-TCP/CPC. The upregulated osteogenic-related genes expression and angiogenic-related genes expression were detected with lower Cu2+ content. Taken together, Cu-containing CPC is of great potential for the regeneration of vascularized new bone.