Conditioning of myoblast secretome using mesenchymal stem/stromal cell spheroids improves bone repair.


Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, United States of America; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UC Davis Health, Sacramento, CA 95817, United States of America. Electronic address: [Email]


Local muscle loss associated with open fractures remains an obstacle to functional recovery and bone healing. Muscle cells secrete bioactive myokines that elicit autocrine and paracrine effects and initiate signaling pathways for regenerating damaged muscle and bone. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are under investigation for the regeneration of both muscle and bone through their potent secretome. Compared to monodisperse cells, MSC spheroids exhibit a more complex secretome with heightened therapeutic potential. We hypothesized that the osteogenic potential of myokines would be enhanced when myoblasts were exposed to the MSC spheroid secretome. Conditioned media from MSC spheroids increased osteogenic response of MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts compared to myokines from L6 myoblasts alone. This effect was synergistically enhanced when conditioned media of MSC spheroids was serially delivered to myoblasts and then osteoprogenitor cells in vitro. We then delivered myoblast-stimulated conditioned media in the presence or absence of syngeneic rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) from alginate hydrogels to a rat critical-sized segmental defect. We observed increased bone formation in defects treated with conditioned media compared to rBMSCs alone, while bone formation was greatest in defects treated with both conditioned media and rBMSCs over 12 weeks. This foundational study demonstrates a novel approach for capitalizing on the paracrine signaling of muscle cells to promote bone repair and provides additional evidence of the synergistic interaction between muscle and bone.


Bone,Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell,Muscle,Myokines,Secretome,