DICER1 gene alterations and decreased expression are associated with developmental disorders and diseases in humans. Oscillation of Dicer1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulates its function during the oocyte-to-embryo transition in Caenorhabditis elegans Dicer1 is also phosphorylated upon FGF stimulation at conserved serines in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HEK293 cells. However, whether phosphorylation of Dicer1 has a role in mammalian development remains unknown. To investigate the consequence of constitutive phosphorylation, we generated phosphomimetic knock-in mouse models by replacing conserved serines 1712 and 1836 with aspartic acids individually or together. Dicer1S1836D/S1836D mice display highly penetrant postnatal lethality, and the few survivors display accelerated aging and infertility. Homozygous dual-phosphomimetic Dicer1 augments these defects, alters metabolism-associated miRNAs, and causes a hypermetabolic phenotype. Thus, constitutive phosphorylation of Dicer1 results in multiple pathologic processes in mice, indicating that phosphorylation tightly regulates Dicer1 function and activity in mammals.